Section: Feline AIDS
The virus devastates a cat's immune system, stopping it from effectively combating other diseases and infections. Infected cats eventually fall prey to a wide variety of secondary illnesses that overwhelmingly prove fatal. There is no cure, but cats can live for up to 10 years – much of it in seeming good health – before succumbing.
It is estimated that between one percent and 14 percent of the cat population is infected with FIV. The disease is transmitted from cat to cat by blood and saliva. This happens primarily through biting so outdoor and male cats that fight with other cats are at greatest risk. FIV has also been found in milk and can be transmitted from mother to kitten. Transmission among household cats through normal contact is thought to be unlikely. Nor can the disease be transmitted to humans.
How FIV Progresses
FIV has three stages of infection:
Stage 1 – In the first stage the virus first causes infections, fever and swollen lymph nodes.
Stage 2 – During this stage, the virus is in effect dormant and many cats appear “healthy.” This is called the sub-clinical phase and lasts from months to years.
Stage 3 – In the final stage the cat suffers the infections and diseases that are often fatal within a year. It is called the chronic infection stage.
An infected cat will often suffer from numerous diseases and infections, including anemia, infections of the gums and mouth, cancer and skin disorders. The cat may also suffer neurological problems that cause seizures, problems maintaining balance and dementia, as well as behavioral changes like inappropriate elimination. Co-infection with feline leukemia virus can occur. Many cats may seem healthy but they are still infected.
The key to diagnosing FIV is determining whether these problems are the result of a suppressed immune system caused by the virus. Your veterinarian will take a medical history, do a complete physical examination and administer an FIV blood test designed to see whether a cat has developed antibodies to the virus. If antibodies are present, it indicates the virus is present in the body. This test is called ELISA or IFA.
It is a good idea to test kittens because they contract the virus when nursing, but it is also possible for a test to show wrongly that a kitten is infected; a nursing kitten can also carry the antibodies of an infected mother without being infected itself. A kitten that tests positive should be retested after six months of age, when it carries its own antibodies and test results will be more reliable.
A cat that tests positive or appears to have FIV will likely undergo further tests to measure its general health and the impact the disease is having on individual organs.
There has been no proven effective treatment for FIV infection. If your cat has no clinical signs, no treatment may be recommended. In this situation, regular follow-up visits to your veterinarian are important to insure the condition does not progress. If immunodeficiency and secondary infections have developed, your veterinarian will choose treatments to combat them. These are likely to consist of antibiotics for bacterial infections, nutritional support, fluid therapy for dehydrated cats and parasite control.
Several therapies used to treat people with AIDS have been used in cats with FIV infection with the goal of boosting their immune systems and slowing the progress of the disease. These treatments include:
AZT, a well-known AIDS drug. Treatment with AZT may result in clinical improvement, immune function and quality of life, but AZT has some potentially serious adverse effects and should be administered to FIV-infected cats under the supervision of a veterinarian experienced with its use.
Alpha interferon. This drug may reduce viral replication in some infected cats. It is not licensed for use in cats, but some clinical studies found increased activity, increased appetite, improvement of blood abnormalities, increased clearance of virus and prolonged survival in treated cats.
Bone marrow transplantation. This procedure has been performed in a limited number of FIV-infected cats and is successful in restoring white blood cell counts in some instances. Infected cats, however, remain infected with FIV. This procedure is available only at a limited number of referral research institutions.
Optimal treatment for your cat requires a combination of home and professional veterinary care. Follow-up is crucial.
Administer any medications as directed by your veterinarian and observe general activity level, body weight, appetite and attitude.
Have your vet show you how to examine and monitor your cat's gum color, urination, defecation and lymph node size.
Contact your veterinarian promptly if you are having trouble treating your cat, your cat develops new symptoms or symptoms worsen.
Provide quality nutrition as directed by your vet and schedule veterinary visits to monitor your cat's condition.
A vaccine has recently become available to help reduce the risk of your cat acquiring FIV. In addition to vaccination, eliminating interactions with infected cats and stopping your cat from fighting greatly helps reduce the risk. Keeping your cat indoors and neutering males are probably the most important keys to prevention.
FIV-infected cats should be isolated from cats that do not carry the virus. They should be quarantined to a separate area in a household away from other cats and should have no contact with FIV-negative cats. All bedding, food and water dishes, litter pans and toys should be disinfected. They should not be shared among cats that are infected and cats that are not.
All cats in the household should be tested for FIV. Quarantine all FIV-negative cats to one area. Retest these cats in three months. If they are negative at that time, they are considered free of FIV. Cats are considered free of infection when two negative test results separated by three months have been obtained. Though you want the new cat to be a member of the household as soon as possible, it is important to observe the quarantine period.
Retest all FIV-positive cats. Cats that test negative for FIV after having testing positive on the first test should remain isolated. Re-testing should be carried out after three additional months.
Kittens should not be allowed to nurse if their mothers are infected because the virus can be passed through the milk.
Please note: Positive titers to FIV can occur from some vaccinations. This can product a positive test result. If your cat tests positive to FIV and is NOT sick, please determine if your cat has been vaccinated recently. Titers to the vaccine can occur for up to 13 months after vaccination.
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